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How to choose a programming language in 2022

April 14, 2022
7 min to read
How to choose a programming language in 2022

If you open Reddit or Quora, the most popular topics are such as "Which is better: Python or PHP?" or "What language to learn today to be needed in 10 years?" One can make this choice in a few ways: according to the labour market, to business tasks, or to your own tastes.

Look up in the labour market

In February, DOU conducted a survey among Ukrainian developers. JavaScript takes first place for the second year in a row, while C# is in second place with positive dynamics for the second year in a row. The third place is taken by Java. TypeScript is growing by 10%. Python, Ruby, C, Scala, and Clojure have negative dynamics. Very few newbies nowadays choose C++.

JavaScript is increasingly being chosen as the first programming language. Among other languages, the undisputed leader is also JavaScript, followed by TypeScript.

The individual developers’ preferences are slightly different from the real picture. The most comfortable languages are Dart, Clojure, Kotlin, Rust, Swift, C#, Go, and TypeScript. By the way, Kotlin is also often switched to from Java. This may be due to Android development.

Adapt to business tasks

Programming languages are useful tools. There are no excellent or terrible programming languages, only acceptable and ineffective tools. In the realm of programming, there are three big whales: web development, application development, and microcontroller programming. Also, in some areas, programming is useful but not a primary task.

Languages ​​and technologies for web development

The web contains everything you see on the Internet, including websites, browser apps, and the backend that supports them. Here are some languages that are commonly used for these purposes:

  • The HTML markup language is used to structure web pages in browsers.
  • CSS is a design language used to make a website or interface seem nice.
  • When you require a lot of CSS code, rules, and styles, you should use a CSS preprocessor language.
  • JavaScript is used to make the interface or application behave as the client expects.
  • To sketch and programme the behaviour of sophisticated web apps, use JS frameworks such as React or Angular.
  • Backend languages such as PHP, Python, and Ruby (the most common) are used to ensure the logic and functionality of applications and to store bespoke code.
  • Django and Rails are examples of backend framework languages.
  • SQL is a query language for databases, most notably MySQL.

All of these tools are required for various activities. It is tough to claim that one is superior to another.

How should the conflict be resolved? Which is superior, Python or PHP? The answer is that what you use at work is superior. For example, if you want to deal with Wordpress sites, you'll require PHP. If you deal with Rails services, you should be familiar with Ryby. If your customers' websites are built with Django, you'll need to learn Python.

But how can I know how clients and employers will interact? You simply cannot. Some technologies are on the rise today, while others will go up tomorrow. Everything is evolving at breakneck speed. The good news is that if you know one language, you will be able to learn and work in other languages more quickly.

Languages ​​and technologies for applications

Apps are anything that your computer or phone uses at the operating system level and does something useful for the user. For example, a text editor, a presentation program, a game, or a calculator. If you are an independent developer, then the choice of programming language is a matter of personal preferences and the chosen operating system:

  • Java and C++ are multiplatform languages.
  • Swift is an Apple ecosystem language.
  • For Windows and Unity games, use C#.
  • For Android, use Kotlin.
  • For applications requiring minimal iron access, the choice is C.

Other languages exist, but the ones listed above are classic choice. You can pick something faster or more suitable for your purpose if required.

In application languages it is the same as in web languages: you cannot declare one language better than another. It all depends on the circumstances. Of course, there’s C and C++, where you can write nearly anything, from a game to a database, but that’s too much.

Language is the primary benefit of technology for applications. For many years, each version has been supported. Because the new version seems to be similar, today's code differs slightly from what was written years ago. And there is a large collection of directories, forums, and ready-made solutions in these languages.

Microcontroller programming languages

Microcontrollers are circuits that have electronic boards that physically control something. For example, the microcontroller in the batteries ensures that the charge current corresponds to the rated current and the battery does not overheat, and the boards in the machines control the motors, cutters, and speead of the part.

In the programming of microcontrollers, everything depends on the specific model of the chip that can be controlled.

  • G-code is frequently used to programme machines, and each machine requires a unique set of commands.
  • Assembler is a universal programming language that may be used on any chip. You may use it to build code for nearly any board, but you must understand how each controller is physically structured.
  • If the quantity of built-in memory allows, microcontrollers are sometimes programmed in C.

To write programmes for microcontrollers, you need qualifications, experience, and knowledge of hardware. It will be difficult for a complete beginner in this field, so it is better to start with robotics.

Data science, machine learning, and analytics

Python is a popular programming language among people working in analytics, machine learning, and data. Python includes numerous ready-made tools, libraries, frameworks, ready-made solutions, and documentation to help with this.

At the same time, significant value may be found in the multiplicity of formulas and scripts used in Excel or Google Sheets. If you have a deep understanding of this technology, you can do data and analytics.

The best language for a programmer is English

If you know English, all the documentation, all the lessons, all the online courses, and the support of the global community are available to you. You can easily master the second, third, and any other programming language if you know English and one programming language.